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Today in Music History
A Daily Look at Music History For Violin Students
A Look at What Happened on Today's Date
Long, Long Ago . . . Or Maybe Just Last Year
June 28
Can You Guess? Below we read of Kalinnikov's Symphony No. 1 in g, with a small letter g.  Sometimes we read of a Symphony in G with a capital letter G. Can You Guess why sometimes we use capital letters and sometimes we use small letters?

Look at the Bottom of the Page for the Answer
What Else
1712 - Jean Jacques Rousseau, philosopher and composer, was born.  Developed a muscal notation system that was not well accepted.

- Richard Rodgers, musical composer, was born.  Wrote  The Sound of Music, Oklahoma!, The King and I, Carousel, South Pacific, Flower Drum Song. Music samples of them all--Click the links!

1904 - Daniel Decatur Emmett, US composer, died in Mt. Vernon Ohio.  Credited with such songs as Dixie and Turkey in the Straw.

- Elmar Oliveira, US violinist, was born.

1959 - Premiere of Alan Hovhaness' Symphony No. 4 for wind band, in Pittsburgh.

Did You Guess?
We use the letters to tell in what "key" a piece is written.  A capital letter indicates a major key.  A small letter indicates a minor key. We'll talk about keys in the tips section in a few weeks. 
Joseph Joachim
1831 – 1907
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Joseph Joachim was born on June 28, 1831, in Kittsee, near Pressburg (Austria-Hungary) , the son of a Jewish merchant family.

In 1833, the family moved to Budapest, where Joseph child was given his first violin lessons by the Polish concert master of the Pest Royal Opera. His talents were immediately apparent and it became clear that music was to be his future.
At the age of 7, Joachim was sent to Vienna, where he studied violin with Joseph Böhm and Georg Hellmesberger Senor -- concertmaster of the royal court opera. He played in Joseph Hellmesberger’s Children’s Quartet, attended the Vienna Conservatory, finishing his studies there when he was 12.

Moving to Leipzig, Joachim studied under Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, who would become his role model.  Mendelssohn made sure that Joachim studied violin, but he was equally adamant that Joachim should study composition as well as the humanities. He took Joachim to London, where Joachim performed Beethoven’s violin concerto to wide critical acclaim. As Joachim studied Mendelssohn’s concepts of art, music and the artistic personality, he began to develop a deep admiration for Mendelssohn and his ideals.

But when Joachim was 16 years old Mendelssohn suddenly died. The loss of his friend and mentor was extremely difficult for Joachim. In 1849 he went to Weimar, where he met Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner. Joachim became concertmaster and composed. More importantly, here he determined to dedicate himself to his mentor's ideals.

In the fall of 1852, Joachim moved to Hannover.  It was in Hannover that he formed his friendships with Johannes Brahms and Clara Schumann. Brahms consulted him extensively as he composed his violin concerto.  Joachim was at the baton when Brahms's First Symphony was introduced in London.  At this time Joachim also championed Beethoven's violin concerto to the extent that the Beethoven became cornerstone in the standard violin repertoire. He served in Hannover as concertmaster, musical director, and soloist.  He became such a good friend of King George V, that the King became Joachim's godfather.  He also met and married the famous opera singer Amalie Schneeweiss.  He composed.  He performed the works of the famous composers of years before as well as those of his contemporaries.  And his virtuosity on the violin grew.  It was said that Joachim was in service to no man, but was in service to his art . . . to music itself.

In 1866 Joachim left Hannover.  In 1868 he became the founding director of the Royal Academy of Music, in Berlin.  There he established the legendary Joachim Quartet.

When Joseph Joachim died on August 15, 1907 he had been active as a performer and teacher for almost 40 years.  Among his compositions are various works for the violin (including three concertos) and overtures to Shakespeare's
Hamlet and Henry IV. He also wrote cadenzas for a number of other composers' concertos (including the Beethoven and Brahms).  

In 1991, the Hannover International Violin Competition of the Foundation of Lower Saxony was "Dedicated to Joseph Joachim."
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