Today in Music History
A Daily Look at Music History For Violin Students
A Look at What Happened on Today's Date
Long, Long Ago . . . Or Maybe Just Last Year
TODAY IS
July 22
Did You Guess? Josef Strauss designed a rotating brush street sweeping vehicle.

Did You See the C
olor Clues?
Can You Guess?
Josef Strauss was actually trained as an engineer.  He designed the forerunner something that would evolve into a machine that you've probably seen around town.  Can You Guess what kind of device Strauss devised to make walking around town a whole lot more pleasant?

Look at the Bottom of the Page for the Answer.
What Else
Happened
Today?
Hugo Kauder, Czech violinist composer and pedagogue, died July 22, 1972 in Bussum.

Kauder was born June 9, 1888  in Tobitschau, Tovasov Moravia in what is now the Czech Republic.  His father was principal of the German language elementary school (separate from the Czech language school). As a boy, Hugo received  violin lessons from the local teacher, who eventually dismissed him when he had "taught him everything he knew."
1844 - Premiere of Richard Wagner's A Faust Overture in Dresden.

1870 - Josef Strauss,  Austrian composer, died at age 42, in Vienna.

1914 - Cecil Effinger, US composer violinist and oboist, was born in Colorado Springs, CO.

1933 - Caterina Jarboro became the first black prima donna of an opera company. She sang "Aida" at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City.

1934 - Premiere of Henry Cowell's Movement  for string quartet from String Quartet No. 2, by the Pro Arte String Quartet

1963 - The Beatles' first U.S. album, Introducing The Beatles, was released.
These lessons were Hugo Kauder's only formal training in music, everything else being self-taught.

Although Kauder moved to Vienna In 1905 to attend engineering school, he spent a great deal of time in the Imperial Court Library studying musical scores of the standard works as well as the then newly published collection of works of Flemish composers of the 15th and 16th Centuries.

From 1911 to 1917 Hugo Kauder played violin in the Wiener Tonkuenstler Orchester under the batons of such conductors as Ferdinand Loewe, Franz Schalk, Nikisch and Richard Strauss. Willem Valkner, a horn player, joined the orchestra in 1912.  Their frinedship would inspire Kauder to compose many pieces featuring the horn.

Kauder joined the Gottesmann Quartet in 1917 as violist. He remained there until 1922.

For the rest of his life, in Vienna as well as later in New York, Kauder was self-employed in composing and teaching violin, music theory, and composition.  He also conducted a chorus and a chamber music ensemble made up of students, family and friends, studying and performing the classics as well as his own compositions. Notable musicians such as the Gottesmann, Sedlak-Winkler, Rose, and Kolbe string quartets performed Kauder's music.

Following the Nazi takeover of Austria, Hugo Kauder left Vienna in December 1938 and eventually made his way to New York via Holland and England.  Hugo Kauder made his home in New York from 1940 until his death in 1972, while spending most summers in Europe from 1955 on.

Kauder had trouble getting his work published at various times during his life, so he investigated and used a variety of reproduction techniques.  In Vienna he used hectography,  whereby a manuscript written in a heavy and greasy ink was applied to a clay mass held in a frame to produce a negative image as the clay mass quite cleanly absorbed the ink from the manuscript. A limited number of copies could then be printed on paper brought into contact with the negative.  Later, in New York, he adopted the system of writing his manuscripts on transparent staff paper with India ink to provide master sheets that could be reproduced in unlimited quantities by the blueprint process and by photocopying machines when these became available.

In the United States, Hugo Kauder benefited from resumed contacts with SIEGMUND LEVARIE, who had been his student in Vienna and had emigrated to the United States in 1937 and became professor of music at the University of Chicago.

Hugo Kauder won a Fromm Foundation award in 1953.  As called for by the award, the foundation sponsored the publication of two works by Boosey and Hawkes, the 1947 Trio for Violin, Horn and Piano dedicated to Willem Valkenier and the 1951 setting of 10 poems by James Joyce for three voices and string quartet dedicated to Norma and Siegmund Levarie.

Hugo Kauder's book Counterpoint: An Introduction to Polyphonic Composition, was published by Macmillan in 1960 and one on harmony (ENTWURF EINER NEUEN MELODIE- UND HARMONIELEHRE,  a new theory of melody and harmony) published by Universal Edition in 1932.  He also wrote numerous essays and reviews on the history of music, individual performances, and events in the lives of prominent musicians.

Click here to see information on the Kauder Competition for String Quartets.
Hugo Kauder
1888-
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